Water quality

We monitor the quality and safety of private water supplies. 

What is a private water supply?

A private water supply is one that is not provided by a water company. Approximately one per cent of the population in England and Wales has a private water supply to their homes. Most private water supplies are in rural locations and are from wells, boreholes, springs or streams. The Private Water Supplies (England) Regulations 2016 and 2018 (Amendment) Regulations set out standards for the quality of the water and place a duty on us to sample and risk assess these supplies.

Who is responsible for a private water supply?

The person responsible for a private water supply is defined as:

  • The owner or occupier of the premises supplied; and
  • The owner or occupier of the premises where the source of the supply is situated, even if the source lies outside the local authority's area; and
  • Any other person who exercises powers of management or control in relation to that source.

Private Water Supplies Regulations

The The Private Water Supplies (England) Regulations 2016 and 2018 (Amendment) Regulations cover all private water supplies and private distribution systems.

They look to safeguard public health by ensuring that supplies are safe to drink by risk assessment and regular sampling. The inspection and sampling regime that we have to undertake has been significantly increased and we are entitled to recover the costs of the work involved.

Private water supplies are categorised into four groups:

  • Single domestic dwellings - a supply serving only one owner-occupied property
  • Small supplies (Regulation 10) - supplying fewer than 50 people with water used for domestic purposes
  • Large supplies (Regulation 9) - supplying over 50 people with water for domestic purposes or serving commercial premises, such as bed and breakfasts, holiday lets, any rented domestic properties, food production businesses and public buildings
  • Private distribution systems (Regulation 8) - Where mains water is supplied to a number of properties through a private network of pipes.

Risk assessments and monitoring requirements

Risk assessment

The regulations require us to carry out a risk assessment of Regulation 8, 9 and 10 private water supplies at least every five years. This involves surveying the supply to identify the risks (potential failures of standards and risks to human health) and to take action to control those risks. This risk assessment will also assist in identifying which additional parameters, if any, need to be sampled when testing the water supply.

Monitoring and sampling

The regulations stipulate how frequently and for which parameters each category of private water supply will be sampled:

  • Single domestic dwellings - unless requested by the supply owner no sampling is required
  • Small supplies (Regulation 10) - sampling is carried out at least once every five years and samples are tested for a reduced set of parameters compared to Regulation 9 supplies. These are listed in the regulations as Group A parameters.
  • Large / commercial (Regulation 9) - sampled at least annually (or more frequently) depending on the volume of water used or if there are concerns that warrant increased monitoring. Parameters for Regulation 9 supplies are more comprehensive and include both Group A and Group B parameters in the regulations.
  • Private distribution systems (Regulation 8) - receive the same five-yearly Group A sampling as small supplies, unless there is a requirement for increased monitoring

Fees and charges

The regulations allow us to make reasonable charges to recover the costs associated with providing these services from private supply owners/operators.

Private water supply fees and charges
Activity  Specifics  Price  Notes 
Risk Assessment
Per assessment
Bespoke price Covers time spent at site, completion of risk assessment and production of report
Sampling Visit*
Per visit
Bespoke price
Charge for sampling per visit
Per inspection Bespoke price
Investigation of a complaint or breach of a regulatory standard
Granting of authorisation
Per authorisation
Bespoke price
Application by the owner of the supply for temporary permission to breach a standard
Analysis costs (check monitoring)
Per set of samples
Bespoke price
Check monitoring as determined by the risk assessment to ensure that the water complies with the standard
Analysis costs (audit monitoring) Per set of samples Bespoke price Additional parameters sampled less often to ensure the water complies with all standards (usually carried out alongside check monitoring)

*No fee payable where a sample is taken and analysed solely to confirm or clarify the results of the analysis of a previous sample.

Investigation and action in the event of a failure

All quality failures must be immediately investigated to determine the cause of the failure and whether it was caused by the condition of the distribution system. We must require remedial action and will prohibit or restrict the use of water if it could be harmful to health.

We will always try to resolve problems informally first. If unsuccessful, formal action must be taken.


We can serve an authorisation to allow failed supplies to continue whilst works are carried out to achieve compliance. Authorisations may only be granted for failures that do not constitute a health risk (usually chemical parameters). Before we issue one, we will consult all water users and the Health Authority and take their views into account. We will inform them of the authorisation and its conditions and provide advice to those that may be at greater risk - for example, parents of babies. We will review authorisations from time to time to ensure sufficient progress is being made towards improvement.


Notices will be served to improve, restrict or prohibit unwholesome supplies. Failure to comply with the notices may result in either works in default or prosecution in a Magistrates' Court.


Appeals can be made to the Magistrates' Court or the Secretary of State depending on which notice is served.

Contact us

Environmental and Community Protection
Telephone: 01442 228455
Email: ecp@dacorum.gov.uk

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